Alternating Current (AC): The standard type of electricity in homes and the most effective way of powering an EV. In an AC circuit, the voltage swings between positive and negative meaning current flows in both directions.

Alternate Fuel Vehicle (AFV): A vehicle powered by fuel other than gasoline or diesel. Examples of alternative fuels are electricity and hydrogen.

Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV): As opposed to a hybrid-electric vehicle or a fuel-cell electric vehicle; usually just called an EV.

Direct Current (DC): A form of electricity where current only flows in one direction. This is the form of electricity produced by batteries and the most common system used in EV conversions.

Depth of Discharge (DOD): A measure of how much energy has been withdrawn from a battery. It is expressed as a percentage of the total battery capacity. For example- if you use 25ah of a 100ah battery, that is running the battery to 25% DOD.

Electric Vehicle (EV): A vehicle that runs on electricity stored onboard in a battery pack.

Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging: The process by which electric vehicles are "fueled" using a battery charger that transfers electricity provided by electric utilities into the vehicle battery to "recharge" it.

Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Stations: Designated areas containing external chargers for electric vehicles. Each station contains a plug that attaches to the vehicle, providing it with a current of electrical energy needed for propulsion.

Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV): A vehicle that combines an internal-combustion engine with an electric motor.

Internal Combustion Engine (ICE): The standard way to power a traditional gasoline-powered car.

Kilowatt (KW): A measure of power. Power is energy per time.

Lead-Acid Battery: A type of rechargeable battery that has the ability to supply high surge currents and as a result the cells maintain a relatively large power-to-weight ratio.

Lithium Ion (Li-ion): A type of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode (anode) to the positive electrode (cathode) during discharge, and from the cathode to the anode when charged.

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV): A hybrid that can be plugged in to recharge from wall-plug (utility) electricity, instead of generating all its electrical power onboard from gasoline. Such a vehicle can run using less gasoline than a non-plug-in hybrid, or even none at all for much of a day's driving; this reduces petroleum use and pollution, at the cost of requiring provision for external charging and a larger battery pack than an ordinary hybrid.

Range Anxiety: The fear of being stranded by an electric car because of insufficient battery performance or charge.

Regenerative Braking Systems (RBS): The process by which an electric motor slows the vehicle by converting energy of motion back into electricity. This means the energy can be stored in a battery and reused for later acceleration instead of being wasted as heat in friction brakes, thus increasing the vehicle's efficiency.

Zero Emissions Vehicle (ZEV): A vehicle that emits no tailpipe pollutants, like an electric or fuel-cell vehicle.


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